Influence operations designed to normalize foreign influence, evoke mass chaos, or enflame societal tensions are inexpensive and rely on publicly available and mostly free digital tools and platforms. Though nation-state APTs and the intelligence community have far more sophisticated tools, low-level “guerrilla” operatives can achieve the same, if not greater, influence over a population through minimal cost and public platforms. In fact, because influence operations are asymmetrical by design, unsophisticated and miserly threat actors achieve a far more significant result per investment than nation-state sponsored and well-resourced actors do.

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